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History of Bioregulatory Medicine

Introduction

Bioregulatory Medicine is a multidisciplinary field of medicine that applies systems biology¹ ² and the multi-system support to homeostasis, also known as bioregulation. It was formulated during ninities, by a team of doctors in London, led by Dr Tatyana Bosh and Dr Damir A Shakambet.

Systems biology applied in bioregulation explores the relationship between human physiology and the environmental health factors. The autoregulatory mechanisms of homeostasis is affected by multiple factors that interrupt systems' balance, and treatment is based on supporting homeostasis.
Diagnosis is made through specific algorithm (multiple causative factors) of aetiological and nutrigenomic and biochemical nature, all involved in the process of dis-ease and in a pattern typical for each patient. This concept is in agreement with modern science, but differs in the conventional approach by not applying palliative (single causative factor) diagnosis and treatment. The bioregulatory medicine implements a personalised protocol that includes support of a set of involved dysregulated homeostatic systems for each patient (personalised medicine).

The International Society for Bioregulatory Medicine was established in 1995 in London, as a non-profit medical organisation, registered as the Biomedic Foundation (Foundation for Bioregulatory Medicine) with the Charity Commissioners in England and Wales. It acts as an international certifying board in Bioregulatory Medicine, setting Training Standards and Competencies in the field.

History

Reductionism in medicine
Cartesian concept postulating reductionism 9 set up future medical trends, based on empiricism, whereby the body was observed from a structural aspect of Anatomy and Histology, as well as function through Physiology and Biochemistry. Beginning with Aristotle's empirical paradigm, which led to observation of early descriptions of vertebrate anatomy and 2nd century Claudius Galen, towards 16th century and public lectures of Anatomy, given by the Company of Barbers and Surgeons in England, exploration into human body, continued as an attempt to define body as a biological machine, an dthi stime on cellular level by delving into cellular structure by Dr Rudolph Carl Virchow, whose cell theory describes the properties of cells.
The study of human physiology dates back to at least 420 BC, to the time of Hippocrates8, and much later Claude Bernard (1813-1878); whose discoveries of the internal environment ('milieu intérieur') all created preconditions for American physiologist Walter Cannon to introduce homeostasis as a universal mechanism of human functioning.

Physiology has further evolved into subdisciplinary branches over time, such as Comparative Physiology, ecophysiology and Evolutionary Physiology, which were observing human function in relations to it's environment. Thus main Bioregulatory principles principles of homoeostasis and interaction with environment, will become a major Bioregulatory Medical principles.

The beginning of Biochemistry phase in medical history comenced with the discovery of the first enzyme, amylase in 1833 by Anselme Payen. Since then, advancements in molecular biology and metabolic pathways, such as discovery of the Krebs cycle became pillars for modern science.
Another significant insight was the discovery of the genes, and their role in the transfer of information. Crucial development came with epigenetics and gene expression26 by Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello who received the 2006 Nobel Prize; where together, these discoveries opened vistas for bioregulatory thinking in terms of environmental inference to biological function. The individual event of multiple informational pathways (algorithm), based on evolutionary physiology expressed onto genes, finally leading to the concept of a 'dis-ease' to be defined within a new bioregulatory framework, as 'a system's bio-informational imbalance of multifactorial aetiology' (Drs. Shakambet&Bosh, 1996)29.

System biology in medicine
Systems thinking in natural sciences has its origin from 6th century BC, when Laozi founded the Taoism, which later served as a foundation for traditional medicine of China, as the first clinical application of systems thinking. Systems theory principles of balancing physiological networks3,4,5 was also applied later by founder of antroposophy, Dr Rudolph Steiner (1861-1925) and Constantine Hering (1800-1880), a contemporary of Dr Samuel Hahnemann,10 (1755-1843), who described the principles of chronological disease progression, within the systems context, as an attempt to define a disease as a process in time, rather than as a singular event.

Ludvig von Bertalanffy (1901-1972) formulated a general systems theory, laying the foundation for modern Open Systems Theory. Ilya Prigogine (1917-2003) described characteristics of a self-organising capacity and finally Norbert Wiener's (1894-1964) formulated the new field of Cybernetics, based on a universal self-regulation principle, through observing homeostasis. In 1932 Hans Selye's (1907-1982) proposed a General Adaptation Syndrome11 and described the way Higher biological systems of endocrine nature behav ewhen exposed to stress. This brought a new concept of systems dysregulation of autoregulatory homeostasis of the living systems.
Allostasis6 was explained by Sterling and Eyer17 in 1988, as an adaptive mechanism with evolutionary drive, as they described the variability of homeostasis exposed to environment; German physician, Dr Hans-Heinrich Reckeweg12 (1905-1985) proposed dysregulation to be prompted mainly by progressive toxicity and 'disease symptoms' merely autocorrective homeostatic mechanism.
Further steps of application of systems biology in medicine was continued by Denis Noble in 1960, who developed the first computer model of the heart pacemaker18 and more formal study of systems biology was initiated by Mihajlo Mesarovic in 1966.

The successes of molecular biology coupled with the explosion of data-rich information sets in genomics, further increased interest in applied systems biology as a possible new medical model, suited for the increasing prevalence of complex degenerative conditions. Development of psychoneuroimmunology (PNEI), and medical research on receptors and neurotransmitters and functional genomics in the 1990s meant that large quantities of high quality data became available, while computing power exploded, enabling more realistic theoretical models. Functional medicine was formulated on this platform in 1993 by Jeffrey Bland, PhD but showed shortcomings due to the narrow focus on genomics and a molecular aspect of system characteristics.
The 'ecological movement' which is closely related to evolutionary biology and genetics catapulted a practical application of system theories, such as environmental medicine and between 1992 and 1996, a series of articles 19,20 on systems medicine and systems genetics published by B.J. Zeng In 1997, and the group of Masaru Tomita published the first quantitative model of the metabolism of a whole (hypothetical) cell.21

Finally, the full Bioregulatory medical systems model was established by Dr Damir Shakambet and Dr Tatyana Bosh in 1994, that brought the integration of homeostasis-based treatment and bioregulatory protocols based on removing dysregulatory factors of affected biological systems according to its pattern, and principles of balancing and supporting all systems involved in clinical settings. They applied their research of 'bio-informational' flow within physiological systems, and developed treatment based on supporting higher PNEI systems in relation to its Lower, cellular system's level counterparts.

Clinical practice of Bioregulation

Elimination of disruptors and facilitation of homeostasis
In bioregulatory medicine, the patient is treated as a biological system, and disease is defined as an autoregulatory imbalance of multifactorial aetiology. Endocrine disruptors and cumulative toxicity, of toxins, toxoids, persistent organic pollutants and metabolic waste, create system-network errors. Autoregulatory allostasis17 becomes damaged and detoxification and chelation treatment facilitates an elimination of micro toxicity15 from the extracellular matrix. Pathological manifestations can also be therapeutically supported by regulating inflammation.

Bioregulation of the biological terrain
Biological terrain functionality depends on tissue alkalinity, and oxygenation levels of intercellular living matrix described by Claude Bernard's (1813-1878) and Dr Otto Heinrich H Warburg (1883-1970). Tissue free radicals which are partly remnants of cellular respiration are causing tissue damage known as an oxidative stress. It is thought to be involved in the development of cancer22, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease23, and atherosclerosis, prompting research in treatment to neutralise tissue free radicals by antioxidant bioregulatory treatment. The vitality of a cytoplasmatic matrix is maintained by the inherent ability of intercellular spaces to swiftly pass nutrients, cytokines, neurotransmitters, nitric oxide, and maintain cellular action potential. Changes of tissue parameters descibed above, also changes the human microbiome14,15,16 "the ecological community of commensal, which are symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms that literally share our body space24,25" as contributory factors of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions.

Informational Bioregulation
The characteristic of human biological networks2, as a flow of variable bio-information, is expressed within the psychoneuroimmune system signalling pathways of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the sympathetic nervous system. The HPA axis responds to physical and mental challenges to maintain homeostasis by controlling the body's cortisol level. Dysregulation of the HPA axis, and cortisol levels modulates inflammation and is implicated in numerous stress-related diseases27. HPA axis activity and cytokines are intrinsically inter-connected: inflammatory cytokines stimulate adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol secretion, while in turn, glucocorticoids suppress the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Hans Selye20, professor at the Université de Montréal proposed in 1956 the General Adaptation Syndrome and explained physiological stress. Nanopharamaceuticals which are published in the Bioregulatory Medicine Formulary28 are used within bioregulatory methodology to reactivate blocked pathways.

Conclusion

Increased incidence of degenerative conditions have raised awareness of bioregulation and the need for a system-network biology approach in medicine; with some medical schools starting to introduce a new syllabus with emphasis on autoregulatory topics and system biology classification. Interdisciplinary research towards extended bioregulatory aetiology also prompted World Health Organization decennial publications of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) to expand on existing systemic diseases, and now includes a whole new class category of systemic diseases.




Bibliography and references


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